Monday, March 15, 2010

Ugaadi Subhakankshalu- Telugu New Year 2010


Swami Ganapati Sachidananda







Ugadi Pachadi -Andhra Delicacy Reflecting Different Flavors Of Life
from
indiancuisine.blogspot.com - Sailu's Food


Today we are celebrating Ugadi,the Telugu New Year Day, which is the first festival of our Telugu calendar and the first big festival that comes after Sankranti.Our Andhra festival is known by different names in different states of India like “Gudi Padwa” in Maharastra and “Ugadi” in Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka.Whatever the name this festival takes in different regions,it heralds the dawn of Vasanth Rutu (Spring Season),which is considered the first season of the year (Chaitra Maasam) .Ugadi to the Telugu speaking people marks a beginning of a new year in which nature is in full bloom, symbolizing regeneration and celebrating the season’s freshness.
With the coming of Ugadi, mango season is in full swing with fresh green mangoes flooding the rythu bazaars,garlands of marigold,roses,kanakaambaram, chamanti,naturally perfumed jasmine flowers (mallepuulu) which are in full bloom adorn the deities in temples and yes,you find most of our Andhra women’s braids are adorned with clusters of mallepuulu (jasmine flowers).The doorways of our homes are adorned with mango leaves which signifies prosperity and general well-being.But the most unique and significant tradition of Ugadi is beginning the new year with savoring a unique flavored pachadi (chutney) that epitomizes the spirit of Ugadi called "Ugadi Pachadi",with sweet,sour,pungent and bitter tastes (shadhruchulu or six tastes). This chutney or sauce is a symbolic reminder of the myriad facets of life in a sense prepares us for the year ahead.Of course,other than the special pachadi we also prepare special foods with the use of raw mango like papppu maamidikaaya,maamidi pulihora,maamidi kobari pachadi,pulihora,bobattulu, payasam and garellu.

Ugadi Pachadi is a special preparation prepared in every Andhra home on Telugu New Year’s day.Its made with fresh tamarind,jaggery(panela),fresh mangoes and neem flowers (margosa).One can add sugarcane,coconut and bananas also.The sweetness of jaggery,the sourness of tamarind,the bitterness of neemflower and the pungent flavor of the green mango skin,spice of the chilli powder ,raw tender mango’s taste and lastly salt form the shadhruchulu or six tastes of the sauce.

Andhra Ugadi Pachadi Recipe
Ingredients:

1 cup of raw fresh mango (cleaned and dried and finely chopped along with skin into small pieces)
1 tbsp of margosa flowers (neem tree flowers)
1 cup of grated jaggery
1 tbsp of fresh finely chopped coconut pieces (optional)
3 -4 tbsp tamarind paste
red chilli pwd (according to your choice)
salt to taste

Mix all the above ingredients to form a sauce like appearence.If you want a thin and watery chutney add very little water (2-3 tbsps).
Note: You can also add small pieces of sugarcane,pieces of ripe banana,putanaala pappu(roasted channa dal) along with the above ingredients.
Each home has its own version of preparing the ugadi pachadi but the main ingredients (reflecting all the six flavors) are as specified above.



The myriad rich taste of this delicacy tickles and lingers on our tongue for a long time leaving a medley of flavors.The flavors of the Ugadi Pachadi signifies that the mixture of bitter margosa flowers and sweet jaggery reflect the myriad facets of life,both joy and sorrow and prepares one to face both good and bad in the year to come.During this season we find people eating neem leaves and flowers at the onset of Vasantha Ruthu and through out the spring season as its a counter measure for kapha dosha individuals (kapha dosha increases around this period).Ugadi Pachadi is a healthy low calorie pachadi where the Neem flowers , new tamarind, jaggery and fresh raw mangoes contain nutrients that cleanse the system and act as prophylactics(prevention of illness or disease).

Ugadi Subhakankshulu!Wishing you all a very happy Ugadi and a great year ahead!


Panchangam Sravanam:



Telugu, Panchanga Sravanam


English, Panchanga Sravanam

Yugadi (Kannada: ಯುಗಾದಿ, Telugu: ఉగాది) from yuga + aadi, yuga means era, aadi means start. The start of an era) is the New Year's Day for the people of the Deccan region of India. While the people of Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh use the term Yugadi/Ugadhi for this festival, the people of Maharashtra term the same festival, observed on the same day, Gudi Padwa. Sindhis, people from Sindh, celebrate the same day as their New Year day Cheti Chand

It falls on a different day every year because the Indian calendar is a lunisolar calendar. The Saka calendar begins with the month of Chaitra (March/April) and Yugadi marks the first day of the new year.
The word Yugadi can be explained as; 'Yuga' is the word for 'epoch' or 'era', and 'aadi' stands for 'the beginning'. Yugadi specifically refers to the start of the age we are living in now, Kali Yuga. Kali Yuga started the moment when Lord Krishna left the world. Maharshi Vedavyasa describes this event with the words 'Yesmin Krishno divamvyataha, Tasmat eeva pratipannam Kaliyugam'. Kali Yuga began on Feb 17/18 midnight 3102 BC.
The festival marks the new year day for people between Vindhyas and Kaveri river who follow the Dakshina Bhartha lunar calendar, pervasively adhered to in the states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Maharashtra.
This calendar reckons dates based on the Shalivahana era (Shalivahana Shaka), which begins its count from the supposed date of the founding of the Empire by the legendary hero Shalivahana. The Satavahana king Shalivahana (also identified as Gautamiputra Satakarni) is credited with the initiation of this era known as Shalivahana. The Salivahana era begins its count of years from the year corresponding to 78 AD of the Gregorian calendar. Thus, the year 2000 AD corresponds to the year 1922 of the Salivahana Era.

In the terminology used by this lunar calendar (also each year is identified as per Indian Calendar), Yugadi falls on Chaitra Shudhdha Paadyami or the first day of the bright half of the Indian month of Chaitra. This generally falls in the months of March or April of the Gregorian calendar. In 2010, ugadi falls on March 16.
Lunar calendars have a sixty year cycle and starts the new year on Yugadi i.e., on Chaitra Sudhdha Paadyami. After the completion of sixty years, the calendar starts anew with the first year.
Yugadi (start of new year) is based on Bhāskara II lunar calculations in 12th century. It starts on the first new moon after Sun crosses equator from south to north on Spring Equinox. For example, the time for the new moon for Bijapur where Bhaskaracharya was born can be determined from the website [1] However, people celebrate Yugadi on the next morning as Indian day starts from sun rise. Many Indians in America also celebrate Yugadi.
[edit]Observance in Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka

The Kannada and Telugu people celebrate the festival with great fanfare; gatherings of the extended family and a sumptuous feast are 'de rigueur'. The day, however, begins with ritual showers (oil bath) followed by prayers, and then the eating of a specific mixture of -
Neem Buds/Flowers for bitterness
Raw Mango for tang
Tamarind Juice for sourness
Green Chilli/Pepper for heat
Jaggery and ripe banana pieces for sweetness
Pinch of Salt for saltiness

This mixture with all six tastes (షడ్రుచులు), called Yugadi Pachhadi (ఉగాది పచ్చడి) in Telugu and Bevu-Bella( ಬೇವು-ಬೆಲ್ಲ) in Kannada[2], symbolizes the fact that life is a mixture of different experiences (sadness, happiness, anger, fear, disgust, surprise) , which should be accepted together and with equanimity.


Holigey/Bhakshalu-prepared on Ugadi in Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh.
In Karnataka a special dish called Obbattu/Holigey, is prepared. In Andhra Pradesh, a special dish called Bhakshalu or Bobbatlu (Puran Poli) are prepared on this occasion. It consists of a filling (Bengal gram and jaggery/sugar boiled and made in to a paste) stuffed in a flat roti like bread. It is usually eaten hot/cold with ghee or milk topping.
Later, people traditionally gather to listen to the recitation of the religious almanac (Panchangam) of the coming year, and to the general forecast of the year to come. This is the Panchanga Sravanam, an informal social function where an elderly and respected person refers to the new almanac pertaining to the coming year and makes a general benediction to all present. The advent of television has changed this routine, especially in the cities. Nowadays, people turn on the TV to watch broadcasts of the recitation.
Yugadi celebrations are marked by literary discussions, poetry recitations and recognition of authors of literary works through awards and cultural programs. Recitals of classical Carnatic music and dance are held in the evenings.

Observance in Maharashtra: Gudi Padwa
The festival is called "Gudi Padwa" in Maharashtra; it heralds the advent of new year and is one of the most auspicious days for Maharashtrians.
It is customary to erect ‘Gudis’ on the first day (Padwa) of the Marathi New Year. 'Gudi' is a bamboo staff with a colored silk cloth and a garlanded goblet atop it, which symbolizes victory or achievement. Hence, this day is known as “Gudipadwa” in Maharashtra. The New Year is ushered in with the worship of the "Gudi" and the distribution of a specific "Prasad" comprising tender neem leaves, gram-pulse and jaggery. The symbolism of tastes is the same as what is described above.
Also in many Maharashtrian homes they celebrate the occasion by making Shrikhand Puri.


Vasanta Navaratr
i (literally - The 9-night Spring festival) starts on this day and culminates nine days later on Sri Raamanavami which falls on Chaitra Sudhdha Navami.
The years would have names in Sanskrit. The name of the one that starts on 27 March 2009 is Sri Virodhi.The one that ended is Sarvadhari.

Vedic and Puranic units of time span from the truti (microsecond) to the mahamantavara (311.04 trillion years). Hindu theology considers the creation and destruction of the universe a cyclic process.

Old Indian measures are presently used primarily for religious purposes in Hinduism and Jainism. They also are employed in the teachings of Surat Shabda Yoga.
The Hindu cosmological time cycles are described in verses 11–23 of Chapter 1, Surya Siddhanta:
(Verse 11). That which begins with respirations (prāna) is called real; that which begins with atoms (truti) is unreal. Six respirations make a vinādi, sixty of these a nādi.
(12). And sixty nādis make a sidereal day and night. Of thirty of these sidereal days is composed a month; a civil month (sāvana) consists of as many sunrises.
(13). A lunar month, of as many lunar days (tithi); a solar (sāura) month is determined by the entrance of the sun into a sign of the zodiac; twelve months make a year. This is called a day of the gods.
(14). The day and night of the devas and of the asuras are mutually opposed to one another. Six times sixty of them are a year of the devas, and likewise of the asuras.
(15). Twelve thousand of these divine years are denominated a chaturyuga (chatur=Four; yuga=Ages); of ten thousand times four hundred and thirty-two solar years.
(16) The difference of the krtayuga and the other yugas, as measured by the difference in the number of the feet of Dharma in each, is as follows :
(17). The tenth part of a chaturyuga, multiplied successively by four, three, two, and one, gives the length of the krta and the other yugas: the sixth part of each belongs to its dawn and twilight.
(18). One and seventy chaturyugas make a (manvantara (Patriarchate of one Manu); at its end is a twilight which has the number of years of a krtayuga, and which is a pralaya (catastrophic end of creation).
(19). In a kalpa (æon) are reckoned fourteen such Manus with their respective twilights; at the commencement of the kalpa is a fifteenth dawn, having the length of a krtayuga.
(20). The kalpa, thus composed of a thousand chaturyugas, and which brings about the destruction of all that exists, is a day of Brahma; his night is of the same length.
(21). His extreme age is a hundred, according to this valuation of a day and a night. The half of his life is past; of the remainder, this is the first kalpa.
(22). And of this kalpa, six Manus are past, with their respective twilights; and of the Patriarch Manu son of Vivasvant, twenty-seven chaturyugas are past;
(23). Of the present, the twenty-eighth chaturyuga, the krtayuga is past; from this point,reckoning up the time, one should compute together the whole number.

Time

The Hindu metrics of time (Kālm Vyavahara) can be summarized as below.

Hindu units of time on a logarithmic scale.
Sidereal metrics
a Paramaanus () is the normal interval of blinking in humans, or approximately 4 seconds
a vighati (विघटि) is 6 paramaanus, or approximately 24 seconds
a ghadiya (घटि) is 60 vighatis, or approximately 24 minutes
a muhurta is equal to 2 ghadiyas, or approximately 48 minutes
a nakshatra ahoratram (नक्षत्र अहोरत्रम्) or sidereal day is exactly equal to 30 muhurtas (Note: A day is considered to begin and end at sunrise, not midnight.)

An alternate system described in the Vishnu Purana Time measurement section of the Vishnu Purana Book I Chapter III is as follows:
10 blinks of the eye = 1 Kásht́há
35 Kásht́hás = 1 Kalá
20 Kalás = 1 Muhúrtta
30 Muhúrttas = 1 day (24 hours)
30 days = 1 month
6 months = 1 Ayana
2 Ayanas = 1 year or one day (day + night) of the gods
[edit]Small units of time used in the Vedas
a trasarenu is the combination of 6 celestial atoms.
a truti is the time needed to integrate 3 trasarenus, or 1/1687.5th of a second.
a vedha is 100 trutis.
a lava is 3 vedhas.
a nimesha is 3 lavas, or a blink.
a kshanas is 3 nimeshas.
a kashthas is 5 kshanas, or about 8 seconds.
a laghu is 15 kashthas, or about 2 minutes.
15 laghus make one nadika, which is also called a danda. This equals the time before water overflows in a six-pala-weight [fourteen ounce] pot of copper, in which a hole is bored with a gold probe weighing four masha and measuring four fingers long. The pot is then placed on water for calculation.
2 dandas make one muhurta.
6 or 7 muhurtas make one yamah, or 1/4th of a day or night.
4 praharas or 4 yamas are in each day or each night.

Lunar metrics
a tithi (also spelled thithi ) or lunar day is defined as the time it takes for the longitudinal angle between the moon and the sun to increase by 12°. Tithis begin at varying times of day and vary in duration from approximately 19 to approximately 26 hours.
a paksa (also paksha) or lunar fortnight consists of 15 tithis
a masa or lunar month (approximately 29.5 days) is divided into 2 pakshas: the one between new moon and full moon (waxing) is called gaura (bright) or shukla paksha; the one between full moon and new moon (waning) krishna (dark) paksha
a ritu (or season) is 2 masa
an ayanam is 3 rituhs
a year is 2 Aayanas

Tropical metrics
a yaama (याम) is 7½ Ghatis (घटि)
8 yaamas 1 half of the day(either day or night)
an ahoratram is a tropical day (Note: A day is considered to begin and end at sunrise, not midnight.)

Reckoning of time among other entities
Reckoning of time amongst the pitr (ancestors).
1 human fortnight (14 days) = 1 day of the pitrs
30 days of the pitrs = 1 month of the pitrs = (14 x 30 = 420 human days)
12 months of the pitrs = 1 year of the pitrs = (12 months of pitrs x 420 human days = 5040 human days)
The lifespan of the pitrs is 100 years of the pitrs (= 36,000 pitr days = 504,000 human days)
Reckoning of time amongst the Devas.
1 human year = 1 day of the Devas.
30 days of the Devas = 1 month of the Devas.
12 months of the Devas = 1 year of the Devas = 1 divine year.
The lifespan of the Devas is 100 years of the Devas (= 36,000 human years)

The Vishnu Purana Time measurement section of the Vishnu Purana Book I Chapter III explains the above as follows:
2 Ayanas (six month periods, see above) = 1 human year or 1 day of the devas
4,000 + 400 + 400 = 4,800 divine years = 1 Krita Yuga
3,000 + 300 + 300 = 3,600 divine years = 1 Tretá Yuga
2,000 + 200 + 200 = 2,400 divine years = 1 Dwápara Yuga
1,000 + 100 + 100 = 1,200 divine years = 1 Kali Yuga
12,000 divine year = 4 Yugas = 1 Mahayuga(also called divine yuga)

Reckoning of time for Brahma.
1000 Mahayugas = 1 kalpa = 1 day (day only) of Brahma (4.32 billion human years; close to the estimated age of the Sun, which is 4.59 Billion Years).
(Two kalpas constitute a day and night of Brahma)
30 days of Brahma = 1 month of Brahma (259.2 billion human years)
12 months of Brahma = 1 year of Brahma (3.1104 trillion human years)
50 years of Brahma = 1 Pararddha
2 parardhas = 100 years of Brahma = 1 Para = 1 Mahakalpa (the lifespan of Brahma)(311.04 trillion human years)
One day of Brahma is divided into 10,000 parts called charanas. The charanas are divided as follows:

The Four Yugas
4 charanas (1,728,000 solar years) Satya Yuga
3 charanas(1,296,000 solar years) Treta Yuga
2 charanas(864,000 solar years) Dwapar Yuga
1 charanas(432,000 solar years) Kali Yuga

The cycle repeats itself so altogether there are 1,000 cycles of mahayugas in one day of Brahma.
One cycle of the above four yugas is one mahayuga (4.32 million solar years)
as is confirmed by the Gita statement "sahasra-yuga paryantam ahar-yad brahmano viduh", meaning, a day of brahma is of 1000 mahayugas. Thus a day of Brahma, kalpa, is of duration: 4.32 billion solar years. Two kalpas constitute a day and night of Brahma
A manvantara consists of 71 mahayugas (306,720,000 solar years). Each Manvantara is ruled by a Manu.
After each manvantara follows one Sandhi Kala of the same duration as a Krita Yuga (1,728,000 = 4 Charana). (It is said that during a Sandhi Kala, the entire earth is submerged in water.)
A kalpa consists of a period of 1,728,000 solar years called Adi Sandhi, followed by 14 manvantaras and Sandhi Kalas.
A day of Brahma equals
(14 times 71 mahayugas) + (15 x 4 Charanas)
= 994 mahayugas + (60 Charanas)
= 994 mahayugas + (6 x 10) Charanas
= 994 mahayugas + 6 mahayugas
= 1,000 mahayugas

Our current date
Currently, 50 years of Brahma have elapsed and we are in the first Day of the 51st year. This Brahma's day, Kalpa, is named as ShvetaVaraha Kalpa. Within this Day, six Manvantaras have already elapsed and we are in the seventh Manavatara, named as - Vaivasvatha Manvantara. Within the Vaivasvatha Manavantara, 27 Mahayugas (4 Yugas together is a Mahayuga), and the Krita, Treta and Dwapara Yugas of the 28th Mahayuga have elapsed. We are in the Kaliyuga of the 28th Mahayuga. This Kaliyuga began in the year 3102 BC in the proleptic Julian Calendar. Since 50 years of Brahma have already elapsed, we are in the second Parardha, also called as Dvithiya Parardha.
The time elapsed since the current Brahma has taken over the task of creation can be calculated as
432000 x 10 x 1000 x 2 = 8.64 Billion Years (2 Kalpa(day and night) )
[8] 8.64 x 109 x 30 x 12 = 3.1104 Trillion Years (1 year of Brahma)
3.1104 x 1012 x 50 = 155.52 Trillion Years (50 years of Brahma)
(6 x 71 x 4320000 ) + 7 x 1.728 x 106 = 1.973 billion years elapsed in first six Manvataras, and Sandhi Kalas in the current Kalpa
27 x 4320000 = 116.640000 million years elapsed in first 27 Mahayugas of the current Manvantara
1.728 x 106 + 1.296 x 106 + 864000 = 3.888 million years elapsed in current Mahayuga
3102 + 2010 = 5112 years elapsed in current Kaliyuga.
So the total time elapsed since current Brahma is
155.52 x 1012 + 1.973x109 + 0.00012053302 = 155.52 Trillion Years
The current Kali Yuga began at midnight 17 February / 18 February in 3102 BC in the proleptic Julian calendar


The year is defined as 12 months, each of which is of 30 days in length i.e., the year is only 360 days long. Consequently, the calendar falls regularly out of date and is adjusted by introducing an additional month every so often. The additional month, called Adhika Maasa meaning literally an extra month, cycles through all the twelve months. No religious ceremonies or festivals are observed during the adhika maasa. There are 60 such year names and the cycle of years repeats every sixty years starting from Prabhava.
Prabhava
Vibhava
Shukla
Pramodoota
Prajotpati
Angeerasa
Sreemukha
Bhaava
Yuva
Dhaatu
Eeswara
Bahudhanya
Pramadi
Vikrama
Vrusha (Vishu)
Chitrabhanu
Svabhanu
Tarana
Pardhiva
Vyaya
Sarvajittu (2007-2008)
Sarvadhari (2008-2009)
Virodhi (2009-2010)
Vikruti (2010-2011)
Khara
Nandana
Vijaya
Jaya
Manmadha
Durmukhi
Hevilambi
Vilambi
Vikari
Sharvari
Plava
Shubhakrutu
Shobhakrutu
Krodhi
Vishvaavasu
Parabhava
Plavanga
Keelaka
Soumya
Sadharana
Virodhikrutu
Pareedhani
Pramadeecha
Ananda
Rakshasa
Nala (naLa)
Pingala
KaLayukti
Siddhaardhi
Raudri
Durmati
Dundubhi
Rudhirodgari
Raktakshi
Krodhana
Akshaya

The year is split into two halves, Uttharaayana and Dakshinaayana, based on the direction of Sun's apparent motion across the sky. The period of sun's six months in northern orbit is called Uttarayana. As the sun begins its journey north, it is believed that the Devas awaken from their slumber and start their day. This period id considered to be the path of light and very auspicious. We find that in Mahabharata, Bhishma waited until uttarayana to leave the world.
This is considered to be the darler path, and to be the night of the Devas. The other half of the year, during which the Sun's movement is southerly is called Dakshinaayana.

Sankramana

During a year, Sun's motion causes it to travel the entire Zodiac. The entrance of the Sun into each individual constellation is called sankramana and there are twelve such sankramanas (one month in length roughly). One important sankramana is the makara sankramana, which happens when Sun enters the Makara or Capricorn since it signals the beginning of Uttharaayana. In Andhra Pradesh, this is celebrated as the festival, Makara Sankranthi, and usually occurs on January 13 or January 14.

Cheti Chand is celebrated as New Year's Day by Sindhis,
According to the Hindu calendar, Cheti Chand is celebrated on the second day of the Chaitra month known as Chet in Sindhi. Hence it is known as CHET-I-CHAND. It is the second day of month chaitra (i.e. a day after Ugadi and Gudi Padwa).
The Sindhi community celebrates the festival of Cheti Chand in honour of the birth of Ishtadeva Uderolal, popularly known as Jhulelal, the Patron Saint of the Sindhis. This day is considered to be very auspicious and is celebrated with pompous and gaiety. On this day, people worship water – the elixir of life.

Followers of Jhulelal observe Chaliho Sahab. It suggests that for forty long days and nights they underwent rituals and vigil on the bank of Sindhu. They did not shave, nor did they wear new clothes or shoes. They did not use soap or oil or any opulent thing. They just washed their clothes, dried them and wore them again. In the evening, they worshipped God Varun, sang songs in his praise and prayed for their solace and salvation. After 40 days of Chaaliho, the followers of Jhulelal celebrate the occasion with festivity as 'Thanks Giving Day' even till today.

On this day, many Sindhis take Baharana Sahib to a nearby river or lake. Baharana Sahib consists of Jyot (Oil Lamp), Misiri (Crystal Sugar), Phota (Cardamom), Fal (Fruits), and Akha. Behind is Kalsh (Water jar) and a Nariyal (Coconut) in it, covered with cloth, phool (flowers) and patta (leaves). There is also a Murti (Idol)with this.

When you meet any Sindhi wish him for Sindhi New Year, saying "Cheti Chand jyon Lakh Lakh Wadayun Athav".
In response "Tohan khe bhi Cheti Chand jyon Lakh Lakh Wadayun Athav".

Langa Voni (in Telugu) (or Dhavani in Tamil language) is a traditional dress worn mainly in the states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Tamilnadu and Kerala by young girls between puberty and marriage. It is also called as two-piece saree or half saree or Paavadai Davani and comprises langa or Lahengaor Pavadai which is tied in the waist using string and an oni or Davani, a see through fine cloth usually 2 to 2.5 metre in length which is draped diagonally over a choli (a tight fitting blouse, same as worn for saree) and is usually woven with cotton or silk. A variant of this is Gagra choli of North India (the difference between the both being in the way of draping the oni or pallu).
The half saree provides a smooth switching from paavadai (full skirt) and sattai (tops), the traditional dress of small girls, to the complexity of draping a saree. Usually the paavadai and oni are brightly colored and contrasting to each other and look like the sari. Just like the sari, oni is also worn by wrapping it around the waist, with one end then draped over the shoulder baring the midriff.

The influence of western culture and apparent thought of inconvenience of wearing the dress has made many girls to switch from this traditional attire to modern outfits . In recent years, however, Langa Oni is gaining popularity among girls again due to media attention and due to the work of many designers who have brought in many new designs. Once being very simple, Langa Oni now portray extravagant embroidery, mirror or zari work with bold colors like black, grey etc which were once considered inauspicious. The fabric has also been changed from the usual silk or cotton to chiffon, georgette and other synthetic materials like crepe or nylon. Modern skirts are usually made of light to mid-weight fabrics like denim, jersey, worsted or poplin. Skirts of thin or clingy fabrics need slips to help the material of the skirt wear in a better way. All these changes have made the dress popular again. Once, worn by the South Indian community on family functions and festivities, Langa Oni are nowadays worn even as party wears.

http://humdrumhohum.blogspot.com/2010/02/emi-sethura-linga.html

http://www.jhulelal.com/completestory.htm

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